Notes for Deut 4:1LEB

These technical Hebrew terms (חֻקִּים [khuqqim] and מִשְׁפָּטִים [mishpatim]) occur repeatedly throughout the Book of Deuteronomy to describe the covenant stipulations to which Israel had been called to subscribe (see, in this chapter alone, vv. 1, 5, 6, 8). The word חֻקִּים derives from the verb חֹק (khoq, "to inscribe; to carve") and מִשְׁפָּטִים (mishpatim) from שָׁפַט (shafat, "to judge"). They are virtually synonymous and are used interchangeably in Deuteronomy.

"fathers" (also in vv. 31, 37).


Notes for Deut 4:2LEB



Notes for Deut 4:3LEB

The LXX and Syriac read "to Baal Peor," that is, the god worshiped at that place; see note on the name "Beth Peor" in Deut 3:29LEB.

"YAHWEH your God." The pronoun has been used in the translation for stylistic reasons to avoid redundancy.

Or "followed the Baal of Peor" (so NAB, NIV, NRSV), referring to the pagan god Baal.


Notes for Deut 4:5LEB

"in the midst of" (so ASV).


Notes for Deut 4:6LEB

"it is wisdom and understanding."

"wise and understanding."


Notes for Deut 4:8LEB

Or "pure"; or "fair"; "righteous."

The Hebrew phrase הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת (hattorah hazzo’t), in this context, refers specifically to the Book of Deuteronomy. That is, it is the collection of all the חֻקִּים (khuqqim, "statutes," Deut 4:1LEB) and מִשְׁפָּטִים (mishpatim, "ordinances," Deut 4:1LEB) to be included in the covenant text. In a full canonical sense, of course, it pertains to the entire Pentateuch or Torah.

"place before."


Notes for Deut 4:9LEB

"watch yourself and watch your soul carefully."


Notes for Deut 4:10LEB

The text begins with "(the) day (in) which." In the Hebrew text v. 10 is subordinate to v. 11, but for stylistic reasons the translation treats v. 10 as an independent clause, necessitating the omission of the subordinating temporal phrase at the beginning of the verse.

"YAHWEH." See note on "he" in Deut 4:3LEB.

"my words." See v. 13; in Hebrew the "ten commandments" are the "ten words."


Notes for Deut 4:11LEB

"a mountain burning with fire as far as the heart of the heavens." The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated "heaven(s)" or "sky" depending on the context.

"darkness, cloud, and heavy cloud."


Notes for Deut 4:12LEB

The words "was heard" are supplied in the translation to avoid the impression that the voice was seen.


Notes for Deut 4:13LEB

This is the first occurrence of the word בְּרִית (bérit, "covenant") in the Book of Deuteronomy but it appears commonly hereafter (Deut 4:23-31LEB; Deut 5:2-3LEB; Deut 7:9-12LEB; Deut 8:18LEB; Deut 9:9-15LEB; Deut 10:2-8LEB; Deut 17:2LEB; Deut 29:1-25LEB; Deut 31:9-26LEB; Deut 33:9LEB). Etymologically, it derives from the notion of linking or yoking together. See M. Weinfeld, TDOT 2:255.

"the ten words."


Notes for Deut 4:14LEB

"to which you are crossing over to possess it."


Notes for Deut 4:15LEB

"give great care to your souls."


Notes for Deut 4:16LEB

The words "I say this" are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. In the Hebrew text v. 16 is subordinated to "Be careful" in v. 15, but this makes for an unduly long sentence in English.


Notes for Deut 4:18LEB

"creeping thing."

"under the earth."


Notes for Deut 4:19LEB

"lest you lift up your eyes." In the Hebrew text vv. 16–19 are subordinated to "Be careful" in v. 15, but this makes for an unduly long sentence in English.

Or "heavens." The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated "heaven(s)" or "sky" depending on the context.

"all the host of heaven."

In the Hebrew text the verbal sequence in v. 19 is "lest you look up…and see…and be seduced…and worship them…and serve them." However, the first two actions are not prohibited in and of themselves. The prohibition pertains to the final three actions. The first two verbs describe actions that are logically subordinate to the following actions and can be treated as temporal or circumstantial: "lest, looking up…and seeing…, you are seduced." See Joüon 2:635 §168.h.

Or "allotted."

Or "nations."

"under all the heaven."

The OT views the heavenly host as God’s council, which surrounds his royal throne ready to do his bidding (see 1 Kgs 22:19LEB). God has given this group, sometimes called the "sons of God" (cf. Job 1:6LEB; Job 38:7LEB; Ps 89:6LEB), jurisdiction over the nations. See Deut 32:8LEB (LXX). Some also see this assembly as the addressee in Ps 82. While God delegated his council to rule over the nations, he established a theocratic government over Israel and ruled directly over his chosen people via the Mosaic covenant. See v. 20, as well as Deut 32:9LEB.


Notes for Deut 4:20LEB

A כּוּר (kur) was not a source of heat but a crucible ("iron-smelting furnace") in which precious metals were melted down and their impurities burned away (see I. Cornelius, NIDOTTE 2:618–19); cf. NAB "that iron foundry, Egypt." The term is a metaphor for intense heat. Here it refers to the oppression and suffering Israel endured in Egypt. Since a crucible was used to burn away impurities, it is possible that the metaphor views Egypt as a place of refinement to bring Israel to a place of submission to divine sovereignty.

"to be his people of inheritance." YAHWEH compares his people to valued property inherited from one’s ancestors and passed on to one’s descendants.


Notes for Deut 4:21LEB

"YAHWEH your God." See note on "he" in Deut 4:3LEB.

The Hebrew text includes "(as) an inheritance," or "(as) a possession."


Notes for Deut 4:22LEB

"this." The translation uses "that" to avoid confusion; earlier in the verse Moses refers to Transjordan as "this land."


Notes for Deut 4:23LEB

"YAHWEH your God." See note on "he" in Deut 4:3LEB.


Notes for Deut 4:24LEB

The juxtaposition of the Hebrew terms אֵשׁ (’esh, "fire") and קַנָּא (qanna’, "jealous") is interesting in light of Deut 6:15LEB where YAHWEH is seen as a jealous God whose anger bursts into a destructive fire. For God to be "jealous" means that his holiness and uniqueness cannot tolerate pretended or imaginary rivals. It is not petty envy but response to an act of insubordination that must be severely judged (see H. Peels, NIDOTTE 3:937–40).


Notes for Deut 4:25LEB

"have grown old in the land," i.e., been there for a long time.

"a form of anything." Cf. NAB, NASB, NRSV, TEV "an idol."

The infinitive construct is understood here as indicating the result, not the intention, of their actions.


Notes for Deut 4:26LEB

I invoke heaven and earth as witnesses against you. This stock formula introduces what is known form-critically as a רִיב (riv) or controversy pattern. It is commonly used in the ancient Near Eastern world in legal contexts and in the OT as a forensic or judicial device to draw attention to Israel’s violation of YAHWEH’s covenant with them (see Deut 30:19LEB; Isa 1:2LEB; Isa 3:13LEB; Jer 2:9LEB). Since court proceedings required the testimony of witnesses, YAHWEH here summons heaven and earth (that is, all creation) to testify to his faithfulness, Israel’s disobedience, and the threat of judgment.

Or "be destroyed"; KJV "utterly perish"; NLT "will quickly disappear"; CEV "you won’t have long to live."

Or "be completely" (so NCV, TEV). It is not certain here if the infinitive absolute indicates the certainty of the following action (cf. NIV) or its degree.


Notes for Deut 4:27LEB

"you will be left men (i.e., few) of number."


Notes for Deut 4:29LEB

Or "mind and being." See Deut 6:5LEB.


Notes for Deut 4:30LEB

The phrase is not used here in a technical sense for the eschaton, but rather refers to a future time when Israel will be punished for its sin and experience exile. See Deut 31:29LEB.

"hear his voice." The expression is an idiom meaning "obey," occurring in Deut 8:20LEB; Deut 9:23LEB; Deut 13:18LEB; Deut 21:18-20LEB; Deut 26:14-17LEB; Deut 27:10LEB; Deut 28:1–2LEB, Deut 28:15LEB, Deut 28:45LEB, Deut 28:62LEB; Deut 28:30LEB.


Notes for Deut 4:31LEB

"YAHWEH your God." See note on "he" in Deut 4:3LEB.

"he will not drop you," i.e., "will not abandon you" (cf. NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).

Or "will not." The translation understands the imperfect verbal form to have an added nuance of capability here.


Notes for Deut 4:32LEB

The Hebrew term אָדָם (’adam) may refer either to Adam or, more likely, to "man" in the sense of the human race ("mankind," "humankind"). The idea here seems more universal in scope than reference to Adam alone would suggest.

The verb is not present in the Hebrew text but has been supplied in the translation for clarification. The challenge has both temporal and geographical dimensions. The people are challenged to (1) inquire about the entire scope of past history and (2) conduct their investigation on a worldwide scale.


Notes for Deut 4:34LEB

The translation assumes the reference is to Israel’s God in which case the point is this: God’s intervention in Israel’s experience is unique in the sense that he has never intervened in such power for any other people on earth. The focus is on the uniqueness of Israel’s experience. Some understand the divine name here in a generic sense, "a god," or "any god." In this case God’s incomparability is the focus (cf. v. 35, where this theme is expressed).

"tried to go to take for himself."

"by testings." The reference here is the judgments upon Pharaoh in the form of plagues. See Deut 7:19LEB (cf. v. 18) and Deut 29:3LEB (cf. v. 2).

"by strong hand and by outstretched arm."


Notes for Deut 4:36LEB

"and his words you heard from the midst of the fire."


Notes for Deut 4:37LEB

The concept of love here is not primarily that of emotional affection but of commitment or devotion. This verse suggests that God chose Israel to be his special people because he loved the patriarchs (Abraham, Isaac, Jacob) and had promised to bless their descendants. See as well Deut 7:7–9LEB.

The LXX, Smr, Syriac, Targum, and Vulgate read a third person masculine plural suffix for the MT’s 3rd person masculine singular, "his descendants." Cf. Deut 10:15LEB. Quite likely the MT should be emended in this instance.


Notes for Deut 4:38LEB

"(as) an inheritance," that is, landed property that one can pass on to one’s descendants.


Notes for Deut 4:40LEB

"commanding" (so NRSV).


Notes for Deut 4:42LEB

"the slayer who slew his neighbor without knowledge."

"yesterday and a third (day)." The point is that there was no animosity between the two parties at the time of the accident and therefore no motive for the killing.


Notes for Deut 4:44LEB

"the sons of Israel" (likewise in the following verse).


Notes for Deut 4:48LEB

The words "their territory extended" are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. In the Hebrew text vv. 47–49 are all one sentence, but for the sake of English style and readability the translation divides the text into two sentences.

Mount Siyon (the Hebrew name is שִׂיאֹן [sion], not to be confused with Zion [צִיּוֹן, tsiyyon]) is another name for Mount Hermon, also called Sirion and Senir (cf. Deut 3:9LEB).


Notes for Deut 4:49LEB

The sea of the Arabah

refers to the Dead Sea, also known as the Salt Sea in OT times (cf. Deut 3:17LEB).

The meaning of the Hebrew term אַשְׁדֹּת (’ashdot) is unclear. It is usually translated either "slopes" (ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT) or "watershed" (NEB).


Notes for Deut 5:1LEB

"and Moses called to all Israel and he said to them"; NAB, NASB, NIV "Moses summoned (convened NRSV) all Israel."


Notes for Deut 5:3LEB

"the Lord." The pronoun has been used in the translation for stylistic reasons to avoid redundancy.



Notes for Deut 5:5LEB

Or "word" (so KJV, NASB, NIV); NRSV "words."


Notes for Deut 5:7LEB

"there must not be for you other gods." The expression "for you" indicates possession.

"upon my face," or "before me" (עַל־פָּנָיַ, ’al-panaya). Some understand this in a locative sense: "in my sight." The translation assumes that the phrase indicates exclusion. The idea is that of placing any other god before YAHWEH in the sense of taking his place. Contrary to the view of some, this does not leave the door open for a henotheistic system where YAHWEH is the primary god among others. In its literary context the statement must be taken in a monotheistic sense. See, e.g., Deut 4:39LEB; Deut 6:13–15LEB.


Notes for Deut 5:8LEB

"an image, any likeness."

"under the earth" (so ASV, NASB, NRSV); NCV "below the land."


Notes for Deut 5:9LEB

In the Hebrew text the form is a participle, which is subordinated to what precedes. For the sake of English style, the translation divides this lengthy verse into two sentences.

"who hate" (so NAB, NIV, NLT). Just as "to love" (אָהַב, ’ahav) means in a covenant context "to choose, obey," so "to hate" (שָׂנֵא, sane’) means "to reject, disobey" (cf. the note on the word "loved" in Deut 4:37LEB; see also Deut 5:10LEB).

"visiting the sin of fathers upon sons and upon a third (generation) and upon a fourth (generation) of those who hate me." God sometimes punishes children for the sins of a father (cf. Num 16:27-32LEB; Josh 7:24–25LEB; 2 Sam 21:1–9LEB). On the principle of corporate solidarity and responsibility in OT thought see J. Kaminsky, Corporate Responsibility in the Hebrew Bible (JSOTSup). In the idiom of the text, the father is the first generation and the "sons" the second generation, making grandsons the third and great-grandsons the fourth. The reference to a third and fourth generation is a way of emphasizing that the sinner’s punishment would last throughout his lifetime. In this culture, where men married and fathered children at a relatively young age, it would not be unusual for one to see his great-grandsons. In an Aramaic tomb inscription from Nerab dating to the seventh century b.c., Agbar observes that he was surrounded by "children of the fourth generation" as he lay on his death bed (see ANET 661). The language of the text differs from Exod 34:7LEB, the sons are the first generation, the grandsons (literally, "sons of the sons") the second, great-grandsons the third, and great-great-grandsons the fourth. One could argue that formulation in Deut 5:9LEB (see also Exod 20:50LEB) is elliptical/abbreviated or that it suffers from textual corruption (the repetition of the words "sons" would invite accidental omission).


Notes for Deut 5:10LEB

This theologically rich term (חֶסֶד, khesed) describes God’s loyalty to those who keep covenant with him. Sometimes it is used synonymously with בְּרִית (bérit, "covenant"; Deut 7:9LEB), and sometimes interchangeably with it (Deut 7:12LEB). See H.-J. Zobel, TDOT 5:44–64.

By a slight emendation (לַאֲלּוּפִים [laallufim] for לַאֲלָפִים [laalafim]) "clans" could be read in place of the MT reading "thousands." However, no ms or versional evidence exists to support this emendation.

Another option is to understand this as referring to "thousands (of generations) of those who love me" (cf. NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT). See Deut 7:9LEB.

"love." See note on the word "reject" in v. 9.


Notes for Deut 5:11LEB

"take up the name of YAHWEH your God to emptiness"; KJV "take the name of YAHWEH thy God in vain." The idea here is not cursing or profanity in the modern sense of these terms but rather the use of the divine Name for unholy, mundane purposes, that is, for meaningless (the Hebrew term is שָׁוְא) and empty ends. In ancient Israel this would include using YAHWEH’s name as a witness in vows one did not intend to keep.

"who takes up his name to emptiness."


Notes for Deut 5:12LEB

"to make set-a-part," that is, to put to special use, in this case, to sacred purposes (cf. vv. 13–15).


Notes for Deut 5:14LEB

There is some degree of paronomasia (wordplay) here: "the seventh (הַשְּׁבִיעִי, hashévii) day is the Sabbath (שַׁבָּת, shabbat)." Otherwise, the words have nothing in common, since "Sabbath" is derived from the verb שָׁבַת (shavat, "to cease").

"in your gates"; NRSV, CEV "in your towns"; TEV "in your country."


Notes for Deut 5:15LEB

"by a strong hand and an outstretched arm," the hand and arm symbolizing divine activity and strength. Cf. NLT "with amazing power and mighty deeds."

Or "keep" (so KJV, NRSV).


Notes for Deut 5:16LEB

The imperative here means, literally, "regard as heavy" (כַּבֵּד, kabbed). The meaning is that great importance must be ascribed to parents by their children.

"YAHWEH your God." See note on "He" in Deut 5:3LEB.


Notes for Deut 5:17LEB

Traditionally "kill" (so KJV, ASV, RSV, NAB). The verb here (רָצַח, ratsakh) is generic for homicide but in the OT both killing in war and capital punishment were permitted and even commanded (Deut 13:5-9LEB; Deut 20:13-17LEB), so the technical meaning here is "murder."


Notes for Deut 5:20LEB

"your neighbor." Clearly this is intended generically, however, and not to be limited only to those persons who live nearby (frequently the way "neighbor" is understood in contemporary contexts). So also in v. 20.


Notes for Deut 5:21LEB

The Hebrew verb used here (חָמַד, khamad) is different from the one translated "crave" (אָוַה, ’avah) in the next line. The former has sexual overtones ("lust" or the like; cf. Song of Sol 2:3LEB) whereas the latter has more the idea of a desire or craving for material things.

"your neighbor’s." See note on the term "fellow man" in v. 19.

"your neighbor’s." The pronoun is used in the translation for stylistic reasons.

"or anything that is your neighbor’s."


Notes for Deut 5:22LEB

"and he added no more" (so KJV, NASB, NRSV); NLT "This was all he said at that time."

"them"; the referent (the words spoken by YAHWEH) has been specified in the translation for clarity.


Notes for Deut 5:24LEB

"his glory and his greatness."

"this day we have seen."


Notes for Deut 5:26LEB

"who is there of all flesh."


Notes for Deut 5:27LEB

"YAHWEH our God." See note on "He" in Deut 5:3LEB.


Notes for Deut 5:28LEB

"YAHWEH." See note on "He" in Deut 5:3LEB.


Notes for Deut 5:29LEB

"keep" (so KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV).


Notes for Deut 5:31LEB

"commandment." The MT actually has the singular (הַמִּצְוָה, hammitsvah), suggesting perhaps that the following terms (חֻקִּים [khuqqim] and מִשְׁפָּטִים [mishpatim]) are in epexegetical apposition to "commandment." That is, the phrase could be translated "the entire command, namely, the statutes and ordinances." This would essentially make מִצְוָה (mitsvah) synonymous with תּוֹרָה (torah), the usual term for the whole collection of law.

"to possess it" (so KJV, ASV); NLT "as their inheritance."


Notes for Deut 5:33LEB

"YAHWEH your God." The pronoun has been used in the translation for stylistic reasons to avoid redundancy.

"may prolong your days"; NAB "may have long life"; TEV "will continue to live."


Notes for Deut 6:1LEB

"commandment." The word מִצְוָה (mitsvah) again is in the singular, serving as a comprehensive term for the whole stipulation section of the book. See note on the word "commandments" in Deut 5:31LEB.

"where you are going over to possess it" (so NASB); NRSV "that you are about to cross into and occupy."


Notes for Deut 6:2LEB

Here the terms are not the usual חֻקִּים (khuqqim) and מִשְׁפָּטִים (mishpatim; as in v. 1) but חֻקֹּת (khuqqot, "statutes") and מִצְוֹת (mitsot, "commandments"). It is clear that these terms are used interchangeably and that their technical precision ought not be overly stressed.

"commanding." For stylistic reasons, to avoid redundancy, "giving" has been used in the translation.


Notes for Deut 6:3LEB

"may multiply greatly" (so NASB, NRSV); the words "in number" have been supplied in the translation for clarity.

"fathers" (also in vv. 10, 18, 23).


Notes for Deut 6:4LEB

"YAHWEH, our God, YAHWEH, one." (1) One option is to translate: "YAHWEH is our God, YAHWEH alone" (cf. NAB, NRSV, NLT). This would be an affirmation that YAHWEH was the sole object of their devotion. This interpretation finds support from the appeals to loyalty that follow (vv. 5, 14). (2) Another option is to translate: "YAHWEH is our God, YAHWEH is unique." In this case the text would be affirming the people’s allegiance to YAHWEH, as well as YAHWEH’s superiority to all other gods. It would also imply that he is the only one worthy of their worship. Support for this view comes from parallel texts such as Deut 7:9LEB and Deut 10:17LEB, as well as the use of "one" in Song 6:8–9, where the starstruck lover declares that his beloved is unique (literally, "one," that is, "one of a kind") when compared to all other women.

Verses 4–5 constitute the so-called Shema (after the first word שְׁמַע, shéma’, "hear"), widely regarded as the very heart of Jewish confession and faith. When Jesus was asked what was the greatest commandment of all, he quoted this text (Matt 22:37–38LEB).


Notes for Deut 6:5LEB

The verb אָהַב (’ahav, "to love") in this setting communicates not so much an emotional idea as one of covenant commitment. To love YAHWEH is to be absolutely loyal and obedient to him in every respect, a truth Jesus himself taught (cf. John 14:15LEB). See also the note on the word "loved" in Deut 4:37LEB.

"heart." In OT physiology the heart (לֵב, לֵבָב; levav, lev) was considered the seat of the mind or intellect, so that one could think with one’s heart. See A. Luc, NIDOTTE 2:749–54.

"soul"; "being." Contrary to Hellenistic ideas of a soul that is discrete and separate from the body and spirit, OT anthropology equated the "soul" (נֶפֶשׁ, nefesh) with the person himself. It is therefore best in most cases to translate נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh) as "being" or the like. See H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 10–25; D. Fredericks, NIDOTTE 3:133–34.

For NT variations on the Shema see Matt 22:37–39LEB; Mark 12:29–30LEB; Luke 10:27LEB.


Notes for Deut 6:7LEB

"repeat" (so NLT). If from the root I שָׁנַן (shanan), the verb means essentially to "engrave," that is, "to teach incisively" (Piel); note NAB "Drill them into your children." Cf. BDB 1041-42 s.v.

Or "as you are away on a journey" (cf. NRSV, TEV, NLT); NAB "at home and abroad."


Notes for Deut 6:8LEB

Tie them as a sign on your forearm. Later Jewish tradition referred to the little leather containers tied to the forearms and foreheads as tefillin. They were to contain the following passages from the Torah: Exod 13:1–16LEB; Deut 6:5–9LEB; Deut 11:13–21LEB. The purpose was to serve as a "sign" of covenant relationship and obedience.

Fasten them as symbols on your forehead. These were also known later as tefillin (see previous note) or phylacteries (from the Greek term). These box-like containers, like those on the forearms, held the same scraps of the Torah. It was the hypocritical practice of wearing these without heartfelt sincerity that caused Jesus to speak scathingly about them (cf. Matt 23:5LEB).


Notes for Deut 6:9LEB

The Hebrew term מְזוּזֹת (mézuzot) refers both to the door frames and to small cases attached on them containing scripture texts (always Deut 6:4–9LEB and Deut 11:13–21LEB; and sometimes the decalogue; Exod 13:1–16LEB; and Num 10:35–36LEB). See J. H. Tigay, Deuteronomy (JPSTC), 443–44.


Notes for Deut 6:12LEB

"out of the house of slavery" (so NASB, NRSV).


Notes for Deut 6:14LEB

"from the gods." The demonstrative pronoun has been used in the translation for stylistic reasons to avoid redundancy.


Notes for Deut 6:15LEB

"lest the anger of YAHWEH your God be kindled against you and destroy you from upon the surface of the ground." Cf. KJV, ASV "from off the face of the earth."


Notes for Deut 6:16LEB

The place name Massah (מַסָּה, massah) derives from a root (נָסָה, nasah) meaning "to test; to try." The reference here is to the experience in the Sinai desert when Moses struck the rock to obtain water (Exod 17:1–2LEB). The complaining Israelites had, thus, "tested" YAHWEH, a wickedness that gave rise to the naming of the place (Exod 17:7LEB; cf. Deut 9:22LEB; Deut 33:8LEB).


Notes for Deut 6:17LEB

"the commandments of YAHWEH your God." The pronoun has been used in the translation for stylistic reasons to avoid redundancy.

The Hebrew text uses the infinitive absolute before the finite verb to emphasize the statement. The imperfect verbal form is used here with an obligatory nuance that can be captured in English through the imperative. Cf. NASB, NRSV "diligently keep (obey NLT)."


Notes for Deut 6:18LEB


"YAHWEH." See note on the word "his" in v. 17.


Notes for Deut 6:20LEB

"your son."


Notes for Deut 6:21LEB

"to your son."

"by a strong hand." The image is that of a warrior who, with weapon in hand, overcomes his enemies.

YAHWEH is commonly depicted as a divine warrior in the Book of Deuteronomy (cf. Deut 5:15LEB; Deut 7:8LEB; Deut 9:26LEB; Deut 26:8LEB).


Notes for Deut 6:22LEB

"YAHWEH." See note on the word "his" in v. 17.

"house," referring to the entire household.


Notes for Deut 6:24LEB

"YAHWEH our God." See note on the word "his" in v. 17.


Notes for Deut 6:25LEB

The term "commandment" (מִצְוָה, mitsvah), here in the singular, refers to the entire body of covenant stipulations.

"as he has commanded us" (so NIV, NRSV).