Notes for Isa 45:1LEB

"anointed" (so KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NCV "his appointed king."


The "right hand" is a symbol of activity and strength; Yahweh directs Cyrus’ activities and assures his success.


"and the belts of kings I will loosen"; NRSV "strip kings of their robes"; NIV "strip kings of their armor."


Notes for Isa 45:2LEB

The form הֲדוּרִים (hadurim) makes little, if any, sense here. It is probably a corruption of an original הָרָרִים (hararim, "mountains"), the reduplicated form of הָר (har, "mountain").


That is, on the gates. Cf. CEV "break the iron bars on bronze gates."


Notes for Isa 45:3LEB

"treasures of darkness" (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); TEV "treasures from dark, secret places."


Notes for Isa 45:4LEB

Or "know" (NCV, NRSV, TEV, NLT); NIV "acknowledge."


Notes for Isa 45:5LEB

"and there is none besides." On the use of עוֹד (’od) here, see BDB 729 s.v. 1.c.


"gird you" (so NASB) or "strengthen you" (so NIV).


Or "know" (NAB, NCV, NRSV, TEV, CEV, NLT); NIV "have not acknowledged."


Notes for Isa 45:6LEB

The words "I do this" are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.


"they" (so KJV, ASV); TEV, CEV "everyone"; NLT "all the world."


Notes for Isa 45:7LEB

The words "I am" are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. In the Hebrew text the participle at the beginning of v. 7 stands in apposition to "Yahweh" in v. 6.


On the surface v. 7a appears to describe Yahweh’s sovereign control over the cycle of day and night, but the following statement suggests that "light" and "darkness" symbolize "deliverance" and "judgment."


This verses affirms that Yahweh is ultimately sovereign over his world, including mankind and nations. In accordance with his sovereign will, he can cause wars to cease and peace to predominate (as he was about to do for his exiled people through Cyrus), or he can bring disaster and judgment on nations (as he was about to do to Babylon through Cyrus).


Notes for Isa 45:8LEB

"let the clouds drip with"; KJV "let the skies pour down."


"open up" (so NASB); NIV, NLT "open wide."


The plural verb should be emended to a singular form. The vav (ו) ending is probably virtually dittographic (note the yod at the beginning of the following word).


The Hiphil verb form (תַצְמִיחַ, tatsmiakh) should probably be emended to a Qal (תִצְמַח, titsmakh). The יח sequence at the end of the form is probably due to dittography (note the following יַחַד, yakhad).


The masculine singular pronominal suffix probably refers back to יָשַׁע (yasha’, "salvation").


Notes for Isa 45:9LEB

"Woe [to] the one who argues with the one who formed him."


The words "one who is like a mere" are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons and clarification.


"Should the clay say to the one who forms it?" The rhetorical question anticipates a reply, "Of course not!"


The words "in the world" are supplied in the translation to approximate in English idiom the force of the sarcastic question.


"your work, there are no hands for it," i.e., "your work looks like something made by a person who has no hands."


Notes for Isa 45:10LEB

"Woe [to] one who says" (NASB and NIV both similar); NCV "How terrible it will be."


See the note at v. 9. This phrase occurs a second time later in this verse.


Verses 9–10 may allude to the exiles’ criticism that Yahweh does not appear to know what he is doing.


Notes for Isa 45:11LEB

See the note on the phrase "the Holy One of Israel" in Isa 1:4LEB.


The Hebrew text reads "the one who formed him, the coming things." Among various suggestions, some have proposed an emendation of יֹצְרוֹ (yotséro, "the one who formed him") to יֹצֵר (yotser, "the one who forms"; the suffixed form in the Hebrew text may be influenced by vv. 9–10, where the same form appears twice) and takes "coming things" as the object of the participle (either objective genitive or accusative): "the one who brings the future into being."


"Ask me" The rhetorical command sarcastically expresses Yahweh’s disgust with those who question his ways.


"Do you command me about…?" The rhetorical question sarcastically expresses Yahweh’s disgust with those who question his ways.


Notes for Isa 45:12LEB

The words "who live" are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.


"I, even my hands"; NASB "I stretched out…with My hands"; NRSV "it was my hands that stretched out." The same construction occurs at the beginning of v. 13.


Or "the heavens." The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated "heavens" or "sky" depending on the context.


"and to all their host I commanded." See the notes at Isa 40:26LEB.


Notes for Isa 45:13LEB

"I stir him up in righteousness"; NASB "I have aroused him." See the note at Isa 41:2LEB. Cyrus (cf. 44:28) is in view here.


Notes for Isa 45:14LEB

"labor," which stands metonymically for the fruits of labor, either "monetary profit," or "products."


Or perhaps, "merchandise" (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NAB "the gain of Ethiopia"; CEV "the treasures of Ethiopia."


"they will pass over to you"; NASB, NIV "will come over to you"; CEV "will belong to you."


Restored Israel is depicted here in typical ancient Near Eastern fashion as an imperial power that receives riches and slaves as tribute.


Israel’s vassals are portrayed as so intimidated and awed that they treat Israel as an intermediary to Yahweh or sub-deity.


Or perhaps, "among." Cf. KJV, ASV "Surely Yahweh is in thee."


"there is no other" (so NIV, NRSV). The same phrase occurs at the end of v. 18, in v. 21, and at the end of v. 22.


Notes for Isa 45:16LEB

"together they will walk in humiliation, the makers of images."


Notes for Isa 45:17LEB

"Israel will be delivered by Yahweh [with] a permanent deliverance."


"you will not be ashamed and you will not be humiliated for ages of future time."


Notes for Isa 45:18LEB

"he [is] the God." The article here indicates uniqueness.


Or "unformed." Gen 1:2LEB describes the world as "unformed" (תֹהוּ, tohu) prior to Yahweh’s creative work, but Yahweh then formed the world and made it fit for habitation.


Notes for Isa 45:19LEB

"in a place of a land of darkness" (ASV similar); NASB "in some dark land."


"In vain" translates תֹהוּ (tohu), used here as an adverbial accusative: "for nothing."


The translation above assumes that צֶדֶק (tsedeq) and מֵישָׁרִים (mesharim) are adverbial accusatives (see Isa 33:15LEB). If they are taken as direct objects, indicating the content of what is spoken, one might translate, "who proclaims deliverance, who announces justice."


Notes for Isa 45:21LEB

"Declare! Bring near!"; NASB "Declare and set forth your case." See Isa 41:21LEB.


Or "a righteous Yahweh and deliverer"; NASB, NIV, NRSV "a righteous Yahweh and a Savior."


Notes for Isa 45:22LEB

The Niphal imperative with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose after the preceding imperative. The Niphal probably has a tolerative sense, "allow yourselves to be delivered, accept help."


Notes for Isa 45:23LEB

"I swear by myself"; KJV, NASB "have sworn."


"a word goes out from my mouth [in] truth and will not return."


"swear" (so KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV); NLT "confess allegiance."


Notes for Isa 45:24LEB

"‘Yes, in Yahweh,’ one says about me, ‘is deliverance and strength.’"


"will come to him and be ashamed."


Notes for Isa 45:25LEB

"In Yahweh all the offspring of Israel will be vindicated and boast."