Notes for Isa 43:1LEB

Or "redeem." See the note at 41:14. Cf. NCV "saved you"; CEV "rescued you"; NLT "ransomed you."


Notes for Isa 43:2LEB

The verb is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).


"burn" (so NASB); NAB, NRSV, NLT "consume"; NIV "set you ablaze."


Notes for Isa 43:3LEB

See the note on the phrase "the Holy One of Israel" in 1:4.


Seba is not the same as Sheba in southern Arabia; cf. Gen 1:10LEB; 1 Chr 1:9LEB.


Notes for Isa 43:4LEB

"Since you are precious in my eyes and you are honored."


Notes for Isa 43:7LEB

"everyone who is called by my name" (so NASB, NIV, NRSV).


Notes for Isa 43:9LEB

"and the former things was causing us to hear?"


Notes for Isa 43:10LEB

Or "know" (KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).


"and after me, there will not be"; NASB "there will be none after Me."


Notes for Isa 43:13LEB

"hand" (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT "No one can oppose what I do."


Notes for Isa 43:14LEB

Or "kinsman redeemer." See the note at Isa 41:14LEB.


See the note on the phrase "the Holy One of Israel" in Isa 1:4LEB.


"and I bring down [as] fugitives all of them."


The Hebrew text reads literally, "as for the Babylonians, in ships their joyful shout." This might be paraphrased, "even the Babylonians in the ships [over which] they joyfully shouted." The point would be that Yahweh caused the Babylonians to flee for safety in the ships in which they took such great pride. A slight change in vocalization yields the reading "into mourning songs," which provides a good contrast with "joyful shout." The prefixed bet (בְּ) would indicate identity.


Notes for Isa 43:15LEB

See the note on the phrase "the Holy One of Israel" in Isa 1:4LEB.


Notes for Isa 43:17LEB

"led out chariots and horses." The words "to destruction" are supplied in the translation for clarification. The verse refers to the destruction of the Egyptians at the Red Sea.


"lay down"; NAB "lie prostrate together"; CEV "lie dead"; NRSV "they lie down."


Notes for Isa 43:18LEB

"the former things" (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT "forget all that."


Notes for Isa 43:19LEB

"sprouts up"; NASB "will spring forth."


Or "know" (KJV, ASV); NASB "be aware of"; NAB, NIV, NRSV "perceive."


The Hebrew texts has "streams," probably under the influence of v. 20. The Qumran scroll 1QIsa has נתיבות ("paths").


Notes for Isa 43:21LEB

"[so] they might declare my praise."


Notes for Isa 43:22LEB

Or "strive"; KJV, ASV, NRSV "been weary of me."


Notes for Isa 43:23LEB

"with." The words "by demanding" are supplied in the translation for clarification.


Notes for Isa 43:24LEB

That is, "calamus" (so NIV); NCV, TEV, NLT "incense"; CEV "spices."


"you did not saturate me"; NASB "Neither have you filled Me."


In vv. 22–24 Yahweh appears to be condemning his people for failure to bring the proper sacrifices. However, this is problematic. If this refers to the nation’s behavior while in exile, such cultic service was impossible and could hardly be expected by Yahweh. If this refers to the nation’s conduct before the exile, it contradicts other passages that depict Israel as bringing excessive sacrifices (see, e.g., Isa 1:11–14LEB; Jer 6:20LEB; Amos 4:4–5LEB, Amos 5:21–23LEB). Rather than being a condemnation of Israel’s failure to bring sacrifices, these verses are better taken as a highly rhetorical comment on the worthlessness of Israel’s religious ritual. They may have brought sacrifices, but not to Yahweh, for he did not accept them or even want them. See C. R. North, Second Isaiah, 127, and R. Whybray, Isaiah 40–66 (NCBC), 91.


Notes for Isa 43:26LEB

"you, tell in order that you may be right"; NAB "prove your innocence."


Notes for Isa 43:27LEB

"your first father." This could refer to Abraham (see Isa 51:2LEB), but elsewhere in Isaiah he does not appear in a negative light (see Isa 29:22LEB; Isa 41:8LEB; Isa 63:16LEB). A more likely candidate is Jacob/Israel, also referred to as the nation’s "father" elsewhere (see Isa 58:14LEB; Isa 63:16LEB).


On the meaning of the term לִיץ (lits), see HALOT 590 s.v. מֵלִיץ. This may refer to the nation’s prophets, priests, and/or kings.


Notes for Isa 43:28LEB

The word "subjected" is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.