Notes for Isa 38:1LEB

"was sick to the point of dying"; NRSV "became sick and was at the point of death."


Notes for Isa 38:3LEB

"walked before you." For a helpful discussion of the background and meaning of this Hebrew idiom, see M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 254.


"and with a complete heart"; KJV, ASV "with a perfect heart."


"and that which is good in your eyes I have done."


"wept with great weeping"; NCV "cried loudly"; TEV "began to cry bitterly."


Notes for Isa 38:4LEB

"and the word of Yahweh came to Isaiah, saying."


Notes for Isa 38:5LEB

"father" (so KJV, NAB, NIV).


Notes for Isa 38:21LEB

If original to Isaiah 38, vv. 21–22 have obviously been misplaced in the course of the text’s transmission, and would most naturally be placed here, between Isa 38:6-7LEB. See 2 Kgs 20:7–8LEB, where these verses are placed at this point in the narrative, not at the end. Another possibility is that these verses were not in the original account, and a scribe, familiar with the 2 Kgs version of the story, appended vv. 21–22 to the end of the account in Isaiah 38LEB.


Notes for Isa 38:7LEB

The words "Isaiah replied" are supplied in the translation for clarification. In the present form of the Hebrew text v. 7 is joined directly to v. 6, but vv. 21–22, if original to Isaiah 38LEB, must be inserted here. See 2 Kgs 20:7–8LEB.


Notes for Isa 38:8LEB

"the shadow on the steps which [the sun] had gone down, on the steps of Ahaz, with the sun, back ten steps."


These steps probably functioned as a type of sundial. See HALOT 614 s.v. מַעֲלָה and M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 256.


"and the sun returned ten steps on the steps which it had gone down."


Notes for Isa 38:10LEB

Or "I said" (KJV, NIV, NRSV, NLT).


The precise meaning of the phrase בִּדְמִי יָמַי (bidmi yamay, "in the [?] of my days") is uncertain. According to HALOT 226 s.v. דְּמִי this word is a hapax legomenon meaning "half." Others derive the form from דַּמִי (dami, "quiet, rest, peacefulness").


The precise meaning of the verb is uncertain. The Pual of of פָּקַד (paqad) occurs only here and in Exod 38:21LEB, where it appears to mean "passed in review" or "mustered." Perhaps the idea is, "I have been called away for the remainder of my years." To bring out the sense more clearly, one can translate, "I am deprived of the rest of my years."


Notes for Isa 38:11LEB

The Hebrew text has יָהּ יָהּ (yah yah, the abbreviated form of יְהוָה [yéhvah] repeated), but this is probably a corruption of יְהוָה.


The Hebrew text has חָדֶל (khadel), which appears to be derived from a verbal root meaning "to cease, refrain." But the form has probably suffered an error of transmission; the original form (attested in a few medieval Hebrew mss) was likely חֶלֶד (kheled, "world").


Notes for Isa 38:12LEB

According to HALOT 217 s.v. דּוֹר this noun is a hapax legomenon meaning "dwelling place," derived from a verbal root meaning "live" (see Ps 84:10LEB). For an interpretation that understands the form as the well-attested noun meaning "generation," see J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah (NICOT), 1:679, n. 4.


The verb form appears to be a Niphal from גָּלָה (galah), which normally means "uncovered, revealed" in the Niphal. Because of the following reference to a shepherd’s tent, some prefer to emend the form to וְנָגַל, a Niphal from גָלָל (galal, "roll") and translate "is rolled [or "folded"] up."


"I rolled up, like a weaver, my life" (so ASV).


For a discussion of the imagery employed here, see J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah (NICOT), 1:684.


"from day to night you bring me to an end."


Notes for Isa 38:13LEB

The verb form in the Hebrew text is a Piel from שָׁוַה (shavah). There are two homonyms שָׁוַה, one meaning in the Piel "level, smooth out," the other "set, place." Neither fits in v. 13. It is likely that the original reading was שִׁוַּעְתִּי (shivvati, "I cry out") from the verbal root שָׁוַע (shava’), which occurs exclusively in the Piel.


"from day to night you bring me to an end."


Notes for Isa 38:14LEB

Or "moan" (ASV, NAB, NASB, NRSV); KJV, CEV "mourn."


"my eyes become weak, toward the height."


The Hebrew term translated "sovereign master" here and in v. 16 is אֲדֹנָי (’adonay).


"stand surety for me." Hezekiah seems to be picturing himself as a debtor who is being exploited; he asks that Yahweh might relieve his debt and deliver him from the oppressive creditor.


Notes for Isa 38:15LEB

"and he has spoken and he has acted."


"because of the bitterness of my soul."


Notes for Isa 38:16LEB

The translation offered here is purely speculative. The text as it stands is meaningless and probably corrupt. It reads literally, "O lord, on account of them [the suffix is masculine plural], they live, and to all in them [the suffix is feminine plural], life of my spirit."


The prefixed verbal form could be taken as indicative, "you restore my health," but the following imperatival form suggests it be understood as an imperfect of request.


Notes for Isa 38:17LEB

"Look, for peace bitterness was to me bitter"; NAB "thus is my bitterness transformed into peace."


The Hebrew text reads, "you loved my soul," but this does not fit syntactically with the following prepositional phrase. חָשַׁקְתָּ (khashaqta, "you loved"), may reflect an aural error; most emend the form to חָשַׂכְת, (khasakht, "you held back").


בְּלִי (béli) most often appears as a negation, meaning "without," suggesting the meaning "nothingness, oblivion," here. Some translate "decay" or "destruction."


"for you threw behind your back all my sins."


Notes for Isa 38:18LEB



The negative particle is understood by ellipsis in this line. See GKC 483 §152.z.


Notes for Isa 38:20LEB

The infinitive construct is used here to indicate that an action is imminent. See GKC 348-49 §114.i, and IBHS 610 §36.2.3g.


"and music [or perhaps, "stringed instruments"] we will play."


"all the days of our lives in the house of Yahweh."


Note that vv. 21–22 have been placed between vv. 6–7, where they logically belong. See 2 Kgs 20:7–8LEB.