Questioning Paul

Chapter 7

part 1

Towrah – Teaching and Guidance

Are We Saved or Enslaved by Observing the Towrah…

At long last we have arrived at the verses cited by a New Zealand radio program which ultimately prompted this review of Paul’s letters, especially Galatians. The Christian’s message, one predicated upon Paul’s epistle, "stressed that we are not required to pay attention to the Torah because it has been replaced by faith in the Gospel of Grace." And while that is consistent with what Sha’uwl has written, it is amazing that such a preposterous notion has fooled so many for so long.

Paul’s testimony in this regard was based upon a twisted portrayal of Abram and his participation in the Covenant offered by Yahowah. And what makes that perplexing is that this man and his relationship with God would be unknown to us if not chronicled in the Torah. So how, Christians, can the only account of the Covenant be irrelevant to the Covenant? How can Abraham’s response and reward disavow the words written about these things? And if Abraham matters, why was the Covenant he formed with God besmirched and dismissed by Paul, only to be replaced by his "New Covenant?"

Before we resume our consideration of Paul’s assault on Yahowah’s Torah, since most readers may be somewhat unfamiliar with Yahowah’s Teaching, a quick review of God’s perspective on His Torah is in order. However, for those of you who would prefer a more detailed presentation of the Towrah’s role in our lives, this would be a wonderful time to take a break from Questioning Paul to systematically consider what God has to say about His foundational text. In An Introduction to God (, Volume Three, you will find a comprehensive evaluation of Yahowah’s "Towrah – Teaching." Part One presents what the Towrah says about itself. Part Two delves into what can be gleaned from comments made about the Towrah in the Proverbs and Psalms. Part Three is my favorite, because it is devoted to greatest song ever written – presenting Dowd / David’s lyrics on how to properly observe, actually understand, and intelligently respond to the Towrah. And then in Part Four, most everything Yahowah revealed about His Towrah through His prophets is presented for your consideration.

Now, for those who would prefer a quick review, please consider the following citations regarding the Towrah, the terms and conditions of its Covenant, and the overall relevance of the words and teaching of Yahowah...

"Listen (shama’ – hear this message) children (ben – sons) to the correct instruction (muwcar – to the accurate teaching) of the Father (‘ab), and pay attention (qasab – accept, process, and consider this information and respond appropriately) so as (la) to know and acknowledge (yada’ – to find, become aware of, to become familiar with, to care about, to respect, and to embrace) understanding and discernment (bynah – to gain knowledge through observation and insight and wisdom through consideration so as to be intelligent and distinguish between right and wrong, fact and fiction).

For indeed (ky – this is important, trustworthy, and reliable), such teaching and learning (laqah – receiving instruction and possessing it to the point of comprehension) is good, beneficial, and helpful (towb – is proper, prosperous, favorable, beautiful, pleasing, enjoyable, valuable, and healing).

For this reason I have given you (la natan – therefore, for this purpose, I have actually provided and bestowed you with the completed gift of) My Towrah (Towrah: from tow – My signed, written, and enduring, towrah – way of treating people, tuwr – giving you the means to explore, to seek, to find, and to choose, yarah – the source from which My instruction, teaching, guidance, and direction flow, which tuwb – provides answers that facilitate your restoration and return, even your response and reply to that which is towb – good, pleasing, joyful, beneficial, favorable, healing, and right, and that which causes you to be loved, to become acceptable, and to endure, tahowr / tohorah – purifying and cleansing you, towr – so as to provide you with an opportunity to change your thinking, attitude, and direction).

You should not forsake, neglect, or reject it (‘al ‘azab – without it you will be forsaken, neglected, rejected, abandoned, separated, and left behind). Indeed (ky – this is important, reliable, and true), I have and will actually come to exist as (hayah – I was, am, and will be as) a Son (ben) to approach the kind and merciful Father (la rak ‘ab – on behalf of My compassionate, gentle, and tenderhearted Father), the only begotten and unique Son (yahyd – as the one and only child) by way of (la) the Mother’s (‘em) presence (paneh).

And He has and will teach Me (yarah – He has and will become the source of My instruction, guidance, and direction). And He said to Me (‘amar la – He told Me), ‘Accept, uphold, fulfill, and keep (tamak – receive, grasp hold of, and retain) My Words (dabar – My message) upon Your heart (leb). Focus upon and closely observe (shamar – carefully examine, thoughtfully contemplate, thoroughly evaluate and consider) My terms and conditions (mitswah – My authorized directions and instructions regarding the covenant contract) and live (chayah – be restored to life, embracing the source of continuous and sustained growth, which is healthy, beneficial, and abundant, accepting the promise of renewal and restoration).’" (Masal / Word Pictures / Proverbs 4:1-4)

The Towrah (Towrah – the signed, written, and enduring means to search for, find, and choose the instruction, teaching, guidance, and direction, which provides answers which facilitate our restoration and return that are good, pleasing, joyful, beneficial, purifying, and cleansing) is Light (‘owr) and (wa) the Way (derek – the Path) of Life (chay – the source of continuous and sustained existence, abundant growth, of revival, renewal, and restoration, the promise of the most favorable of circumstances, prosperity, and blessings)." (Masal / Word Pictures / Proverbs 6:23)

"My son (beny – My child), choose to actually observe (shamar – elect to focus upon, carefully examine, diligently consider, and thoughtfully evaluate, agree to pay close attention to and genuinely care about (qal imperative indicating that an actual relationship will be established between Father and son should the child choose of their own volition to pay attention to this exhortation to revere and regard)) My Words (‘emer – My answers, explanations, and promises). And (wa) My Terms and Conditions (mitswah – My authorized directions and binding instructions regarding My covenant contract), you should habitually treasure and store (tsaphan – you should value and keep (qal imperfect affirming the relationship between us and Yah’s terms and conditions ought to be genuine because by properly valuing them, their influence will be ongoing, producing everlasting results)) with you (‘eth).

Choose to keep focused upon, closely examine, and carefully consider (shamar – elect to actually observe, pay close attention to, and genuinely care about (qal imperative)) My Terms and Conditions (mitswah – My authorized instructions and binding directions regarding the covenant agreement) and (wa) live (chayah – be restored and renewed, be nourished and grow, electing to exist forever as a result of God’s promise and favor) (qal imperative – affirming that our decision to observe the Terms and Condition of Yah’s binding Covenant is equivalent to choosing to be restored to life and living forever)). My Towrah Teaching (Towrah – My Torah Instruction, Guidance, and Direction: from tow – My signed, written, and enduring, towrah – way of treating people, tuwr – giving you the means to explore, to seek, to find, and to choose, yarah – the source from which My instruction, teaching, guidance, and direction flow, which tuwb – provides answers that facilitate your restoration and return, even your response and reply to that which is towb – good, pleasing, joyful, beneficial, favorable, healing, and right, and that which causes you to be loved, to become acceptable, and to endure, tahowr / tohorah – purifying and cleansing you, towr – so as to provide you with an opportunity to change your thinking, attitude, and direction) should be as (ka – should be considered as and akin to) the pupil, the center, and the focus (‘iyshown – the extant essence and individual nature) of your eyes and understanding (‘ayin – your sight and perceptions, your perspective and thoughts)." (Masal / Word Pictures / Proverbs 7:1-2)

"The wicked (rasa’ – the guilty and condemned who deserved to be punished, those in violation of the standard) arrogantly boast and make fools of themselves (halal – they are flashy, and while pretending to be bright and enlightened they display an improper attitude of haughtiness, glorifying themselves, praising themselves they mock and slander) by abandoning and rejecting (‘azab – by forsaking and separating from, by neglecting and disassociating from, by departing from and ignoring) the Towrah (Towrah – the signed, written, and enduring means to search for, find, and choose the instruction, teaching, guidance, and direction which provides answers which facilitate our restoration and return that are good, pleasing, joyful, beneficial, favorable, healing, and right, purifying and cleansing, thereby giving us the opportunity and means to change our thinking, attitude, and direction to the way which is more fortuitous and beneficial). And (wa) those who observe, focusing upon (shamar – those who closely examine and carefully consider) the Towrah (Towrah – Instruction, Teaching, Guidance, and Direction), they take the initiative to oppose and resist them (garah ba – they are overtly hostile to them and they provoke them, they actively engage against them and irritate them by not conforming to their pressure or power). Evil (ra’ – wicked and violent, mischievous and malignant) individuals (‘ysh – men) do not (lo’) apprehend or teach (byn – consider, realize, perceive, understand, instruct, or implement) good judgment (mishpat – the proper means to resolve disputes, to be discriminating, to be fair, to obtain justice, and to make sound decisions). But (wa) those who diligently seek (baqas – those whose search and investigation allows them to procure the information necessary to learn about) Yahowah (efei) consider and understand (byn – apprehend, perceive, and realize) everything (kol)." (Masal / Word Pictures / Proverbs 28:4-5)

"The one who turns away his ear from hearing (suwr ‘ozen min shama’ – the one who avoids listening and paying attention to) the Towrah (Towrah – the source of instruction and direction, guidance and teaching), his prayers and requests (taphilah – his pleas and petitions for intervention) also (gam) will be considered detestable (tow’ebah – will be seen as a disgusting abomination). The one who misleads (sagah – the one who deceives and leads astray) the upright (yashar – the straightforward) in the way (ba derek) of evil (ra’ – in that which is harmful, malignant, afflicting, and adversarial, severing the relationship), into the pit (ba shachuwth – the place where one is brought down, prostrating themselves in worship before false gods and reduced to despair), he will fall and be cast down (huw’ naphal – he will descend from a higher position to a lower one, wasting away), but the innocent (tamym – those who have been perfected, who are genuine and unblemished) will enjoy a good, generous, festive, and beneficial inheritance (towb nachal – will inherit and acquire that which is agreeable, moral, joyous, and valuable)." (Masal / Word Pictures / Proverbs 28:9-10)

"Without revelation (ba lo’ chazown – with no communication from God, without prophecy; from chazah – without seeing and perceiving, without understanding) people (‘am) take charge and run wild (para’ – they are ignorant and unkept, they take their own initiative and behave like an uncontrolled and unrestrained mob). But (wa) he is happy and blessed, he walks upright on the correct path (‘esher / ‘ashur – he finds good fortune and experiences great joy along the restrictive but valid, straight way to stand safe and secure) who observes and focuses upon (shamar – who closely examines and carefully considers) the Towrah (Towrah – Teaching, Instruction, Direction, and Guidance)." (Masal / Word Pictures / Proverbs 29:18)

"Blessed and happy is (‘asry – by walking the straight path the enjoyment of a favorable outcome awaits) the individual (ha ‘iysh) who (‘asher) does not walk (lo’ halak) in (ba) the plans and schemes (‘esah – the strategy, advice, and counsel) of the wicked who violate the standard (rasa’ – of those who are evil and unrighteous). And in (wa ba) the way (derek – path) of sinners (hata’ – of the offensive who have missed the way), he does not stand (lo’ ‘amad – he does not appear and is not even present). In the assembly (wa ba mowshab – in the dwelling places and settlements, the communities and households) of those who arrogantly mock (lys – of those who boast and interpret which showing no respect), he does not stay (lo’ yasab – dwell, live, settle down, sit, or remain). To the contrary (‘im) instead (ky), in (ba) the Towrah of Yahowah (erft efei) – the Teaching, Instruction, Guidance, and Direction of Yahowah), he finds enjoyment and pleasure (chephets – he prefers, refers, and desires). And regarding (wa ba) the Towrah (Towrah – teaching, instruction, guidance, and direction), he speaks thoughtfully and purposefully (hagah – he reviews the material, meditates upon the information, considers its implications, and then makes the decision to roar, declaring these conclusions forcefully, emotionally, and powerfully (qal imperfect – telling us that these informed declarations on behalf of Yah’s Instructions are genuine and ongoing)) in the daytime (yowmam – in the heat of the day) and at night (wa laylah – in the darkness and shadows)." (Mizmowr / Song / Psalm 1:1-2)

"Yahowah’s (efei) Towrah (Towrah – Source of Teaching and Instruction and the Place from which Direction and Guidance Flow) is wholly complete and entirely perfect (tamym – without defect, lacking nothing, totally correct, sound, genuine, right, helpful, healing, beneficial, and true), returning, restoring, and transforming (suwb – turning around, bringing back, changing, and renewing) the soul (nepesh – our consciousness). Yahowah’s (efei) restoring testimony (‘eduwth – enduring witness) is trustworthy and reliable (‘aman – is instructive, informative, verifiable, confirming, supportive, and establishing), making understanding and obtaining wisdom (hakam – making education, learning, and enlightenment to the point of comprehension) easy for those who are receptive (pethy – simple for the open-minded). Yahowah’s (efei) directions (piquwdym – instructions and prescriptions, precepts and guidance; from paqad – that which we should pay especially close attention to, care about, look at, and examine so that we respond appropriately) are right (yashar – are straight (and thus neither crooked or circuitous) and upright (and thus are disassociated from bowing down), they are approved, esteemed, correct, proper, and pleasing), causing the heart to rejoice (leb samah – facilitating an attitude of elation). Yahowah’s (efei) terms and conditions (mitswah – His authorized instructions regarding the codicils of His covenant contract) are morally pure and are purifying (bar – paving the way to inheritance, to enlightenment, and to understanding) shining a light toward understanding (‘owr ‘ayn – illuminating the proper perspective, shedding a brilliant light on the path to enlightenment). Revering and respecting (yir’ah) Yahowah (efei) is cleansing and restoring (tahowr – purifying and perfecting), sustaining and establishing (‘amad – causing one to be established, standing upright) forever (‘ad). The just means to resolve disputes of (mishpat – the means used to achieve justice and exercise good judgment of) Yahowah (efei) are trustworthy and reliable (‘emeth – are enduring, dependable, honest, and true). They are wholly (yahdaw – all together and completely) vindicating (tsadaq – justifying, causing the recipient to be righteous and innocent)." (Mizmowr / Song / Psalm 19:7-9)


With that introduction from Yahowah, the man who claimed to speak for God, began his crusade against Him by writing these words:

"Paulos, an apostle, not of men, not even by the means of man, but to the contrary on behalf of Iesou Christou and god, father of the one having awakened Him out of a dead corpse, (1:1) and all the brothers with me to the called out of the Galatias, (1:2) Grace to you and peace from god, father of us and Lord Iesou Christou, (1:3) the one having given Himself on account of the sins and errors of us, so that somehow, He might gouge or tear out, uprooting us from the past circumstances of the old system which had been in place which is disadvantageous and harmful, corrupt and worthless, malicious and malignant according to the desire and will of god and father of us, (1:4) to whom the opinion regarding the glorious appearance of the shining light, a manifestation of God’s reputation, by means of the old and the new systems, Amen, let it be so. (1:5)

I am astonished, wondering in this way quickly you changed, becoming disloyal, apostates and traitors away from your calling in the name of Grace to a different beneficial messenger (1:6) which does not exist differently, conditionally negated because some are stirring you up, confusing you, proposing to change and pervert the healing message of Christou, (1:7) but to the contrary, if we or a messenger out of heaven conveys a beneficial messenger to you which is contrary to what we delivered as a good messenger to you then a curse with a dreadful consequence exists. (1:8)

As we have said already, and even just now, repetitively, I say, if under the condition someone communicates a useful message to you contrary, even greater than that which you received, it shall be (in fact I command and want it to exist as) a curse with a dreadful consequence. (1:9) For because currently, men I persuade presently, actually use words to win the favor of, seducing, misleading, and appeasing the god. Or by comparison and contrast, I seek and desire to please and accommodate humans? Yet nevertheless, if men, I was pleasing and accommodating, exciting the emotions of and lifting up a slave of Christou, certainly not was me. (1:10)

But nevertheless, I profess and reveal to you brothers of the beneficial message which having been communicated advantageously by and through myself, because it is not in accord with man. (1:11) But neither because I by man associating myself with it. Nor was I taught or instructed as a disciple. But to the contrary, by way of a revelation, an appearance serving to uncover and unveil Iesou Christou. (1:12)

For because indeed you heard of my wayward behavior in some time and place in the practice of Judaism, namely that because throughout, showing superiority, surpassing any measure of restraint, to an extraordinary degree, and better than anyone else, I was aggressively and intensely pursued, persecuting, oppressing, and harassing the called out of god, and I was and am devastating her, continuing to undermine, overthrow, and annihilate her. (1:13)

And so I was and continue to progress, accomplishing a great deal, and I persist moving forward in the practice of Judaism, over and beyond many contemporaries among my race, zealous and excited, devoted and burning with passion to belong to the traditions and teachings handed down by my forefathers. (1:14) But at a point in time when it pleased and was chosen enjoyable and better for god, the one having appointed me, setting me aside out of the womb of my mother (1:15) to reveal and disclose, uncovering and unveiling the son of him in order that I could announce the healing message among the races, immediately. I did not ask the advice of or consult with flesh or blood. (1:16)

I did not ascend into Yaruwshalaim toward the goal of being with or against the Apostles before me, but to the contrary I went away, withdrawing to Arabia, and returned again to Damascus. (1:17) Then later in the sequence of events, after three years time, I ascended up to Yaruwshalaim to visit and get acquainted with Kephas and remained against / with him fifteen days. (1:18) But other of the Apostles, I did not see, I did not pay attention to, or concern myself with except Ya’aqob, the brother of the Lord. (1:19)

But now what I write to you, you must pay especially close attention in the presence of god, because I cannot lie. (1:20) Thereafter, I came to the regions of Syria and also of Cilicia. (1:21) But I was not known and was disregarded, I was either ignored or ignorant, not recognized or understood, personally by appearance as an individual by the called out of Yahuwdah in Christo. (1:22) But then only they were constantly hearing that the one presently pursuing and persecuting us at various times now he presently proclaims a healing message of faith which once he was attacking, continuing to annihilate, he was consistently ravaging and destroying. (1:23) And so they were praising and glorifying, attributing an exceptionally high value and status, considering illustrious and magnificent, dignifying and magnifying in me for god. (1:24)

Later, through fourteen years also, I went up to Yaruwshalaim along with Barnabas, having taken along also Titus. (2:1) I went up from uncovering an unveiling revelation which lays bare, laying down to them the beneficial messenger which I preach among the races down from my own, uniquely and separately, but then to the opinions, presumptions, and suppositions, into foolishness and stupidity, without purpose, I might run or I ran. (2:2)

To the contrary, not even Titus, a Greek being, was compelled, forced or pressured, to be circumcised. (2:3) But then on account of the impersonators who faked their relationship brought in surreptitiously into the group to spy upon and plot against the freedom from conscience and liberation from the constraints of morality that we possess in Christo Iesou in order that us they will actually make subservient, controlling for their own ends, (2:4) to whom neither to a moment we yielded, surrendered, or submitted in order that the truth of the god may continue to be associated among you. (2:5)

But now from the ones currently presumed and supposed to be someone important based upon some sort of unspecified past, they were actually and continue to be nothing, completely meaningless and totally worthless, to me. It carries through and bears differently the face of god of man not take hold of or receive, because to me, the ones currently presuming and dispensing opinions based upon reputed appearances, of no account, worthless was their advice and counsel in the past. (2:6)

Contrariwise, nevertheless, the objection and exception, having seen and perceived that because namely I have been believed entrusted with the healing message and beneficial messenger of the uncircumcised inasmuch as Petros / Rock of the circumcised. (2:7) Because then namely, the one having previously functioned in Petro to an apostle for the circumcision, it actually functioned also in me to the nations and ethnicities. (2:8)

And having recognized, becoming familiar with the Grace of the one having been given to me, Ya’aqob, Kephas, and also Yahowchanan, the ones presently presumed and supposed to be leaders, the right place of honor and authority they granted to me, and to Barnabas fellowship as a result. We to the nations and ethnicities, but they to the circumcision. (2:9) Only alone by itself the lowly and poor, the worthless beggars of little value that we might remember and possibly think about which also I was eager and quick same this to do. (2:10)

But when Kephas came to Antioch, I was opposed to and against his presence. I stood in hostile opposition because he was convicted and condemned, even ignorant. (2:11) Because, before a certain individual came from Ya’aqob, he was eating together with the different races, but when he came, he was withdrawing and was separating himself, out of fear of the circumcised. (2:12) So they were hypocritical, and also the remaining Yahuwdym. As a result even Barnabas was led away and astray with them in the duplicitous hypocrisy. (2:13)

Nevertheless, when I saw that they were not walking through life rightly with the truth of the healing and beneficial messenger, I said to Kephas in front of all: ‘If you Jews actively being ethnic, how the ethnicities you compel and force into being or acting Jewish? (2:14)

We Jews by nature and not from the social outcasts of sinful and heathen races (2:15) having come to realize without investigation or evidence that by no means whatsoever is made right, vindicated, or righteous man by means of tasks or activities associated with the Towrah if not by belief and faith in Iesou Christou, and we on Christon Iesoun, ourselves believed in order for us to have become righteous, to have been acquitted and vindicated out of faith in Christou, and not by means of acting upon or engaging in the Towrah, because by means of engaging in and acting upon the Towrah not any flesh will be acquitted, vindicated, nor be made righteous. (2:16)

But if seeking to be made righteous and innocent in Christo, we were found also ourselves social outcasts and sinners, shouldn’t we be anxious that Christos becomes a guilty, errant, and misled, servant of sin? Not may it exist, (2:17) because if that which I have actually torn down, dissolved, and dismantled, invalidated and abolished, subverted, abrogated, and discarded, this on the other hand I restore or reconstruct, promoting this edifice, I myself bring into existence and recommend transgression and disobedience. (2:18) I then, because of, and by the Towrah’s allotment or law, myself, actually died and was separated in order that to god I might currently live. In Christo I have actually been crucified together with. (2:19)

I live, but no longer I. He lives then in me, Christos. This because now I live in the flesh, in faith I live of the god and Christou, the one having loved me and surrendered, entrusting authority, yielding and handing over the power to control, influence and instruct, and to betray exclusively and especially of himself for the sake of and because of me. (2:20)

I do not reject or disregard the Charity / Grace of the god if because then by or through the Torah righteousness consequently as a result, Christos undeservedly, for no reason or cause, without benefit, for naught, and in vain, he died. (2:21)

O ignorant and irrational, unintelligent and unreasonable, Galatians. To whom you bewitched, deceived, and slandered, brought evil upon and seduced? (3:1) This alone I want to learn from you: out of accomplishments of the Towrah the spirit you received or alternatively out of hearing of belief? (3:2)

In this way, you are ignorant and irrational, lacking in knowledge and unable to think logically. Having begun with spirit, now in flesh you are completing? (3:3) So much and so long these things you suffered, you were affected and you were vexed, annoyed, and angry, without reason or result, even chaotically without a plan. If indeed, really and yet then also thoughtlessly and for nothing without cause, reason, or result. (3:4)

The one therefore then supplying you the spirit and causing to function and operating powers in you out of acting upon and engaging in the tasks delineated in the Torah or out of hearing faith? (3:5)

Just as and to the degree that Abram believed and had faith in the God so it was reasoned and accounted to Him as righteousness. (3:6) You know as a result that the ones out of faith, these sons are Abram. (3:7)

Having seen beforehand then by contrast, the writing, that because out of faith makes right the people from different races and places, the God, He before beneficial messenger acted, to the Abram that they would in time be spoken of favorably in you to all the races. (3:8) As a result, the ones out of faith, we are spoken of favorably, even praised together with the faithful Abram." (3:9)

Given the choice between relying upon Yahowah’s Word or believing what was scribed in Sha’uwl’s letters, it is a wonder three people, much less three billion, chose to place their faith in this man. It is also hard to imagine that someone claiming to speak for God would call His Torah a "curse," but nonetheless, that is precisely what the founder of the Christian religion said next...

"Because (gar – for) to the degree that (hosos – as many and as far as) out of (ek) tasks and activities of (ergon – works or actions associated with, engaging in) the Torah (nomou – the means to being nourished by that which is bestowed to become heirs, precepts which were apportioned, established, and received as a means to proper and be approved, and prescriptions for an inheritance; from nemo – that which is provided, assigned, and distributed to heirs to nourish them (singular genitive, and thus a specific characterization)), they are and they exist (eisin eisin) under (hupo – by way of) a curse (katara – that which a supernatural power deploys when he wishes to invoke harm by promoting evil, that which is accursed, denounced and detested), for (gar – because indeed) it has been written (grapho) that (hoti): ‘To become accursed (epikataratos – to be exposed, abhorrent, and repugnant, slanderous, hateful, and malicious (to become is a product of the nominative case)), everyone (pas – all and completely) who (hos) not (ou) remains in (emmeno – stays and continues in, perseveres with) all (pas) that (tois) having been written (grapho) in (en) the scroll (to biblion – the book or documented written record typically on papyrus) of the (tou) Torah (nomou – the allotment which is parceled out, the inheritance which is given, the nourishment which is bestowed to be possessed and used to grow, the precepts which are apportioned, established, and received as a means to be proper and approved, and the prescription to become an heir (singular genitive, and thus restricted to a singular specific and unique characterization)), the of (tou) to do (poieomai – to make, produce, or perform) them (autos).’" (Galatians 3:10)

This is the ultimate confession. And for informed and rational individuals, the case is closed. The testimony Yahowah has called, "good, beneficial, and perfect," Sha’uwl has just labeled "abhorrent and malicious." Since both cannot be telling the truth, who do you suppose is lying?

We have comprehensively researched every discernible connotation of "nomos." And here, Sha’uwl has finally and openly confessed to what we have long since known. He is using nomou to describe the "Torah," as if nomos and towrah were synonymous. We know this because in the attempt to prove this point he translated the Hebrew word "towrah" into Greek as "nomou." As a result, a Pauline apologist can no longer promote the myth that Paul was condemning Rabbinic Law instead of the Towrah without contradicting Paul’s own testimony. With this single statement the debate is over, the question has been answered. Paul is demeaning and denouncing not just the Word of God, but Yahowah’s foundational testimony.

Beyond emphatically demonstrating that Sha’uwl was using variations of nomos to convey "Torah" throughout his letters, by rendering towrah as nomou, to be intellectually honest the meaning of towrah in Hebrew, which is "teaching, instruction, direction, and guidance" must prevail over "law." Therefore, not only is Paul implicating himself by disparaging the Word of God, those who publish Christian bibles are universally guilty of misrepresenting one of the most important words ever written when they render towrah via nomos as "law."

While Sha’uwl has bragged about annulling and destroying Yahowah’s Teaching, he has now upped the ante. He has devolved to name-calling. Katara, translated "a curse," is actually a considerably more demeaning concept. This noun is defined in the dozen lexicons at my disposal as being "an execration, imprecation, and malediction." Since these are not common terms, let’s consider how they are defined. To execrate is to "denounce someone or something, declaring it or them to be hateful, abhorrent, and loathsome." To imprecate is "to invoke evil on someone or something, cursing them or it." And a malediction is "slander which maligns and is malicious." If we are to believe Sha’uwl, all of these things apply to Yahowah and to His Towrah.

Katara is a compound of ara, "a malevolent prayer which is harmful, hateful, and repugnant," and kata, meaning "down from, according to, and throughout." Therefore, there is no getting around the fact that Sha’uwl is denouncing Yahowah’s Towrah because he loathes it. Sha’uwl wants us to believe that the book Yahowah authored to introduce Himself, to reveal His Covenant, to present His Invitations, and to provide His Guidance is "hateful and abhorrent, something to be maligned because it is evil, slanderous, harmful, and malicious throughout."

This known, I have a confession. I joined the two verbs in the opening statement together because the second insertion of eisin, which means "they are or they exist" when it is scribed in the third person plural, is out of place at the statement’s conclusion. According to the Nestle-Aland, this sentence actually reads: "For as many as from works of law are under curse they are...." Therefore, I combined the verbs to convey the concepts of "being and existing."

In both instances, eisin was scribed in the present active indicative third person plural. In the present tense, Paul is portraying the evil curse as being in process with no end in sight. The active voice reveals that those who have chosen to observe the Torah have brought this abhorrent, harmful, and repugnant condition upon themselves. Worse, in the indicative mood, Paul is saying that his evaluation of the Towrah and its consequence is real, genuine, and actual.

Sha’uwl used a variation of katara to convey "accursed" in his citation of the Torah’s Dabarym / Words / Deuteronomy 27:26. This variation is from epikataratos, an adjective that adds the prefix epi, meaning "on, upon, before, or against." As such, Paul is attempting to ascribe each of the horrendous aspects of katara to the Towrah, itself, impugning its author, by inserting this abhorrent concept directly into the Torah’s dialog. And yet, I’ve seldom been as pleased to see the Torah quoted. By doing so in this context, Sha’uwl is affirming beyond any doubt that the nomou he is attempting to destroy is the one Yahowah authored. If he had meant to demean Rabbinic Law, he would have quoted from the Oral Law which became the Talmud.