Notes for Isa 47:1LEB


בְּתוּלַה (bétulah) often refers to a virgin, but the phrase "virgin daughter" is apparently stylized (see also Isa 23:12LEB; Isa 37:22LEB). In the extended metaphor of this chapter, where Babylon is personified as a queen (vv. 5, 7), she is depicted as being both a wife and mother (vv. 8–9).


Or "For" (NASB, NRSV).


Notes for Isa 47:3LEB

"Your shame will be seen." In this context "shame" is a euphemism referring to the genitals.


"I will not meet a man." The verb פָּגַע (pagah) apparently carries the nuance "meet with kindness" here (cf. 64:5, and see BDB 803 s.v. Qal.2).


Notes for Isa 47:4LEB

The Hebrew text reads, "Our redeemer – Yahweh who commands armies [traditionally, Yahweh of hosts] is his name, the Holy One of Israel." The ancient Greek version adds "says" before "our redeemer."

אָמַר (’amar) may have accidentally dropped from the text by virtual haplography. Note that the preceding word אָדָם (’adam) is graphically similar.


See the note on the phrase "the Holy One of Israel" in Isa 1:4LEB.


Notes for Isa 47:5LEB

"darkness," which may indicate a place of hiding where a fugitive would seek shelter and protection.


Or "For" (NASB, NRSV).


Notes for Isa 47:6LEB

Or "compassion."


"on the old you made very heavy your yoke."


Notes for Isa 47:7LEB

"Forever I [will be] permanent queen"; NIV "the eternal queen"; CEV "queen forever."


"you did not set these things upon your heart [or "mind"]."


"you did not remember its outcome"; NAB "you disregarded their outcome."


Notes for Isa 47:8LEB

Or perhaps, "voluptuous one" (NAB); NAB "you sensual one"; NLT "You are a pleasure-crazy kingdom."


"the one who says in her heart."


"I [am], and besides me there is no other." See Zeph 2:15LEB.


"I will not live [as] a widow, and I will not know loss of children."


Notes for Isa 47:9LEB

"loss of children and widowhood." In the Hebrew text the phrase is in apposition to "both of these" in line 1.


"according to their fullness, they will come upon you."


For other examples of the preposition bet (בְּ) having the sense of "although, despite," see BDB 90 s.v. III.7.


Reference is made to incantations and amulets, both of which were important in Mesopotamian religion. They were used to ward off danger and demons.


Notes for Isa 47:10LEB

"you trusted in your evil"; KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV "wickedness."


Or "said"; NAB "said to yourself"’ NASB "said in your heart."


The words "self-professed" are supplied in the translation for clarification.


See the note at v. 8.


Notes for Isa 47:11LEB

The Hebrew text has שַׁחְרָהּ (shakhrah), which is either a suffixed noun ("its dawning," i.e., origin) or infinitive ("to look early for it"). Some have suggested an emendation to שַׁחֲדָהּ (shakhadah), a suffixed infinitive from שָׁחַד (shakhad, "[how] to buy it off"; see BDB 1005 s.v. שָׁחַד). This forms a nice parallel with the following couplet. The above translation is based on a different etymology of the verb in question. HALOT 1466 s.v. III שׁחר references a verbal root with these letters (שׁחד) that refers to magical activity.


"you will not know"; NIV "you cannot foresee."


Notes for Isa 47:12LEB

"stand" (so KJV, ASV); NASB, NRSV "Stand fast."


The word "trusting" is supplied in the translation for clarification. See v. 9.


"in that which you have toiled."


"maybe you will be able to profit."


"maybe you will cause to tremble." The object "disaster" is supplied in the translation for clarification. See the note at v. 9.


Notes for Isa 47:13LEB

"you are tired because of the abundance of your advice."


"let them stand and rescue you – the ones who see omens in the sky, who gaze at the stars, who make known by months – from those things which are coming upon you."


Notes for Isa 47:14LEB

"hand," here a metaphor for the strength or power of the flames.


The Hebrew text reads literally, "there is no coal [for?] their food, light to sit before it." Some emend לַחְמָם (lakhmam, "their food") to לְחֻמָּם (lékhummam, "to warm them"; see HALOT 328 s.v. חמם). This statement may allude to Isa 44:16LEB, where idolaters are depicted warming themselves over a fire made from wood, part of which was used to form idols. The fire of divine judgment will be no such campfire; its flames will devour and destroy.


Notes for Isa 47:15LEB

"So they will be to you"; NIV "That is all they can do for you."


"that for which you toiled, your traders from your youth." The omen readers and star gazers are likened to merchants with whom Babylon has had an ongoing economic relationship.


"each to his own side, they err."