Notes for Isa 58:1LEB

"declare to my people their rebellion."


"and to the house of Jacob their sin." The verb "declare" is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).


Notes for Isa 58:2LEB

"ways" (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, TEV); NLT "my laws."


Notes for Isa 58:3LEB

The words "they lament" are supplied in the translation for clarification.


"you find pleasure"; NASB "you find your desire."


Or perhaps, "debtors." See HALOT 865 s.v. עָצֵב.


Notes for Isa 58:4LEB

"you fast for" (so NASB); NRSV "you fast only to quarrel."


"and for striking with a sinful fist."


Notes for Isa 58:5LEB

"choose" (so NASB, NRSV); NAB "wish."


"a day when man humbles himself." The words "Do I want" are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.


Or "making [their] bed."


Notes for Isa 58:6LEB

"Is this not a fast I choose?" "No" is supplied in the translation for clarification.


The words "I want you" are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.




Notes for Isa 58:7LEB

"Is it not?" The rhetorical question here expects a positive answer, "It is!"


"and afflicted [ones], homeless [ones] you should bring [into] a house." On the meaning of מְרוּדִים (mérudim, "homeless") see HALOT 633 s.v. מָרוּד.


"and from your flesh do not hide yourself."


Notes for Isa 58:8LEB

"will burst out like the dawn." Light  here symbolizes Yahweh’s favor and restored blessing, as the immediately following context makes clear.


"prosper"; KJV "spring forth speedily."


Or "righteousness." Their godly behavior will be on display for all to see.


The nation will experience Yahweh’s protective presence.


Notes for Isa 58:9LEB

"if you." In the Hebrew text vv. 9b–10 are one long conditional sentence. The protasis ("if" clauses appear in vv. 9b–10a), with the apodosis ("then" clause) appearing in v. 10b.


Notes for Isa 58:10LEB

"if you." See the note on "you must" in v. 9b.


"If you furnish for the hungry [with] your being, and the appetite of the oppressed you satisfy."


"will rise in the darkness."


"and your darkness [will be] like noonday."


Notes for Isa 58:11LEB

"he will satisfy in parched regions your appetite."


"and your bones he will strengthen."


Notes for Isa 58:12LEB

"and they will build from you ancient ruins."


The Hebrew text has "the one who restores paths for dwelling." The idea of "paths to dwell in" is not a common notion. Some have proposed emending נְתִיבוֹת (nétivot, "paths") to נְתִיצוֹת (nétitsot, "ruins"), a passive participle from נָתַץ (natats, "tear down"; see HALOT 732 s.v. נְתִיצָה), because tighter parallelism with the preceding line is achieved. However, none of the textual sources support this emendation. The line may mean that paths must be repaired in order to dwell in the land.


Notes for Isa 58:13LEB

Lit., "if you." In the Hebrew text vv. 13–14 are one long conditional sentence. The protasis ("if" clauses appear in v. 13), with the apodosis ("then" clause) appearing in v. 14.


"if you turn from the Sabbath your feet."


"[from] doing your desires on my holy day." The Qumran scroll 1QIsa supplies the preposition מִן (min) on "doing."


"and call the Sabbath a pleasure"; KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV "a delight."


"and [call] the holy [day] of Yahweh honored." On קָדוֹשׁ (qadosh, "holy") as indicating a time period, see BDB 872 s.v. 2.e (cf. also Neh 8:9–11).


"and you honor it [by refraining] from accomplishing your ways, from finding your desire and speaking a word." It is unlikely that the last phrase ("speaking a word") is a prohibition against talking on the Sabbath; instead it probably refers to making transactions or plans (see Hos 10:4LEB). Some see here a reference to idle talk (cf. 2 Sam 19:30LEB).


Notes for Isa 58:14LEB

For a parallel use of the phrase "find joy in" (Hitpael of עָנַג [’anag] followed by the preposition עַל [’al]), see Ps 37:4LEB.


"and I will cause you to ride upon the heights of the land." The statement seems to be an allusion to Deut 32:13LEB, where it is associated, as here, with Yahweh’s abundant provision of food.


"and I will cause you to eat the inheritance of Jacob your father." The Hebrew term נַחֲלָה (nakhalah) likely stands by metonymy for the crops that grow on Jacob’s "inheritance" (i.e., the land he inherited as a result of Yahweh’s promise).


"for the mouth of Yahweh has spoken." The introductory כִּי (ki) may be asseverative (as reflected in the translation) or causal/explanatory, explaining why the preceding promise will become reality (because it is guaranteed by the divine word).