Notes for Exodus 31:1LEB

The next unit describes the preparation of skilled workers to build all that has been listed now for several chapters. This chapter would have been the bridge to the building of the sanctuary (35–39) if it were not for the idolatrous interlude. Yahweh called individuals and prepared them by his Spirit to be skilled to do the work for the tabernacle. If this were the substance of an exposition, it would clearly be a message on gifted people doing the work – close to the spiritual lesson of Ephesians 4. There would be two levels of meaning: the physical, which looks at the skilled artisans providing for a place to worship Yahweh, and the spiritual, which would bring in the Spirit-filled servants of Yahweh participating in building up his kingdom.


"and Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying."


Notes for Exodus 31:2LEB

"called by name." This expression means that the person was specifically chosen for some important task (S. R. Driver, Exodus, 342). See the expression with Cyrus in Isa 45:3–4LEB.


Notes for Exodus 31:3LEB

The expression in the Bible means that the individual was given special, supernatural enablement to do what Yahweh wanted done. It usually is said of someone with exceptional power or ability. The image of "filling" usually means under the control of the Spirit, so that the Spirit is the dominant force in the life.


The following qualities are the ways in which the Spirit’s enablement will be displayed. "Skill" is the ability to produce something valuable to Yahweh and the community, "understanding" is the ability to distinguish between things, to perceive the best way to follow, and "knowledge" is the experiential awareness of how things are done.


"and in all work"; "all" means "all kinds of" here.


Notes for Exodus 31:4LEB

The expression is לַחְשֹׁב מַחֲשָׁבֹת (lakhshov makhashavot, "to devise devices"). The infinitive emphasizes that Bezalel will be able to design or plan works that are artistic or skillful. He will think thoughts or devise the plans, and then he will execute them in silver or stone or whatever other material he uses.

Notes for Exodus 31:6LEB

The expression uses the independent personal pronoun ("and I") with the deictic particle ("behold") to enforce the subject of the verb – "and I, indeed I have given."


"and in the heart of all that are wise-hearted I have put wisdom."


The verse means that there were a good number of very skilled and trained artisans that could come to do the work that Yahweh wanted done. But Yahweh’s Spirit further endowed them with additional wisdom and skill for the work that had to be done.


The form is a perfect with vav (ו) consecutive. The form at this place shows the purpose or the result of what has gone before, and so it is rendered "that they may make."


Notes for Exodus 31:7LEB

"all the vessels of the tent."


Notes for Exodus 31:12LEB

There are some questions about the arrangement of the book. The placement of this section here, however, should come as no surprise. After the instructions and preparation for work, a Sabbath day when work could not be done had to be legislated. In all that they were going to do, they must not violate the Sabbath,


"and Yahweh said (אָמַר, ’amar) to Moses, saying."


Notes for Exodus 31:13LEB

The instruction for the Sabbath at this point seems rather abrupt, but it follows logically the extended plans of building the sanctuary. B. Jacob, following some of the earlier treatments, suggests that these are specific rules given for the duration of the building of the sanctuary (Exodus, 844). The Sabbath day is a day of complete cessation; no labor or work could be done. The point here is that Yahweh’s covenant people must faithfully keep the sign of the covenant as a living commemoration of the finished work of Yahweh, and as an active part in their sanctification. See also H. Routtenberg, "The Laws of Sabbath: Biblical Sources," Dor le Dor 6 (1977): 41-43, 99–101, 153–55, 204–6; G. Robinson, "The Idea of Rest in the OT and the Search for the Basic Character of Sabbath," ZAW 92 (1980): 32-42; M. Tsevat, "The Basic Meaning of the Biblical Sabbath, ZAW 84 (1972): 447-59; M. T. Willshaw, "A Joyous Sign," ExpTim 89 (1978): 179-80.


Or "your sanctifier."


Notes for Exodus 31:14LEB

This clause is all from one word, a Piel plural participle with a third, feminine suffix: מְחַלְלֶיהָ (mékhalleha, "defilers of it"). This form serves as the subject of the sentence. The word חָלַל (khalal) is the antonym of קָדַשׁ (qadash, "to be set-a-part"). It means "common, profane," and in the Piel stem "make common, profane" or "defile." Treating the Sabbath like an ordinary day would profane it, make it common.


This is the asseverative use of כִּי (ki) meaning "surely, indeed," for it restates the point just made (see R. J. Williams, Hebrew Syntax, 73, §449).


"the one who does."


"any" has been supplied.


Literally "her" (a feminine pronoun agreeing with "soul/life," which is grammatically feminine).


Notes for Exodus 31:15LEB

This is an adverbial accusative of time, indicating that work may be done for six days out of the week.


The form is a Niphal imperfect; it has the nuance of permission in this sentence, for the sentence is simply saying that the six days are work days – that is when work may be done.


The expression is שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן (shabbat shabbaton), "a Sabbath of entire rest," or better, "a sabbath of complete desisting" (U. Cassuto, Exodus, 404). The second noun, the modifying genitive, is an abstract noun. The repetition provides the superlative idea that complete rest is the order of the day.


Notes for Exodus 31:17LEB

The expression again forms an adverbial accusative of time.


The word "rest" essentially means "to cease, stop." So describing Yahweh as "resting" on the seventh day does not indicate that he was tired – he simply finished creation and then ceased or stopped. But in this verse is a very bold anthropomorphism in the form of the verb וַיִּנָּפַשׁ (vayyinnafash), a Niphal preterite from the root נָפַשׁ (nafash), the word that is related to "life, soul" or more specifically "breath, throat." The verb is usually translated here as "he was refreshed," offering a very human picture. It could also be rendered "he took breath" (S. R. Driver, Exodus, 345). Elsewhere the verb is used of people and animals. The anthropomorphism is clearly intended to teach people to stop and refresh themselves physically, spiritually, and emotionally on this day of rest.


Notes for Exodus 31:18LEB

The expression "the finger of Yahweh" has come up before in the book, in the plagues (Exod 8:15LEB) to express that it was a demonstration of the power and authority of Yahweh. So here too the commandments given to Moses on stone tablets came from Yahweh. It too is a bold anthropomorphism; to attribute such a material action to Yahweh would have been thought provoking to say the least. But by using "Yahweh" and by stating it in an obviously figurative way, balance is maintained. Since no one writes with one finger, the expression simply says that the Law came directly from Yahweh.