Notes for Gen 8:1LEB

The Hebrew word translated "remembered" often carries the sense of acting in accordance with what is remembered, i.e., fulfilling covenant promises (see B. S. Childs, Memory and Tradition in Israel [SBT], especially p. 34).


Heb "to pass over."


Notes for Gen 8:2LEB

Some (e.g., NIV) translate the preterite verb forms in this verse as past perfects (e.g., "had been closed"), for it seems likely that the sources of the water would have stopped before the waters receded.


Notes for Gen 8:3LEB

The construction combines a Qal preterite from שׁוּב (shuv) with its infinitive absolute to indicate continuous action. The infinitive absolute from הָלָךְ (halakh) is included for emphasis: "the waters returned…going and returning."


Heb "the waters." The pronoun ("they") has been employed in the translation for stylistic reasons.


The vav (ו) consecutive with the preterite here describes the consequence of the preceding action.


Notes for Gen 8:4LEB

Heb "on the mountains of Ararat." Obviously a boat (even one as large as the ark) cannot rest on multiple mountains. Perhaps (1) the preposition should be translated "among," or (2) the plural "mountains" should be understood in the sense of "mountain range" (see E. A. Speiser, Genesis [AB], 53). A more probable option (3) is that the plural indicates an indefinite singular, translated "one of the mountains" (see GKC 400 §124.o).


Ararat is the Hebrew name for Urartu, the name of a mountainous region located north of Mesopotamia in modern day eastern Turkey. See E. M. Yamauchi, Foes from the Northern Frontier (SBA), 29–32; G. J. Wenham, Genesis (WBC), 1:184–85; C. Westermann, Genesis, 1:443–44.


Notes for Gen 8:5LEB

Heb "the waters were going and lessening." The perfect verb form הָיָה (hayah) is used as an auxiliary verb with the infinitive absolute חָסוֹר (khasor, "lessening"), while the infinitive absolute הָלוֹךְ (halokh) indicates continuous action.


Or "could be seen."


Notes for Gen 8:6LEB

The introductory verbal form וַיְהִי (vayéhi), traditionally rendered "and it came to pass," serves as a temporal indicator and has not been translated here.


Heb "opened the window in the ark which he had made." The perfect tense ("had made") refers to action preceding the opening of the window, and is therefore rendered as a past perfect. Since in English "had made" could refer to either the ark or the window, the order of the phrases was reversed in the translation to clarify that the window is the referent.


Notes for Gen 8:7LEB

Heb "and it went out, going out and returning." The Hebrew verb יָצָא (yatsa’), translated here "flying," is modified by two infinitives absolute indicating that the raven went back and forth.


Notes for Gen 8:8LEB

Heb "he"; the referent (Noah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.


The Hebrew text adds "from him." This has not been translated for stylistic reasons, because it is redundant in English.


The Hebrew verb קָלָל (qalal) normally means "to be light, to be slight"; it refers here to the waters receding.


Notes for Gen 8:9LEB

The words "still covered" is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.


Heb "him"; the referent (Noah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.


Heb "it"; the referent (the dove) has been specified in the translation for clarity.


Heb "and he brought it to himself to the ark."


Notes for Gen 8:11LEB

The clause introduced by vav (ו) consecutive is translated as a temporal clause subordinated to the following clause.


The deictic particle הִנֵּה (hinneh) draws attention to the olive leaf. It invites readers to enter into the story, as it were, and look at the olive leaf with their own eyes.


Notes for Gen 8:12LEB

The word "again" is not in the Hebrew text, but is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.


Heb "it did not again return to him still." For a study of this section of the flood narrative, see W. O. E. Oesterley, "The Dove with the Olive Leaf (Gen VIII 8–11)," ExpTim 18 (1906/07): 377-78.


Notes for Gen 8:13LEB

Heb In the six hundred and first year." Since this refers to the six hundred and first year of Noah’s life, the word "Noah’s" has been supplied in the translation for clarity.


Heb "and saw and look." As in v. 11, the deictic particle הִנֵּה (hinneh) invites readers to enter into the story, as it were, and look at the dry ground with their own eyes.


Notes for Gen 8:14LEB

In v. 13 the ground (הָאֲדָמָה, haadamah) is dry; now the earth (הָאָרֶץ, haarets) is dry.


Notes for Gen 8:17LEB

The words "bring out" are not in the Hebrew text, but are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.


Following the Hiphil imperative, "bring out," the three perfect verb forms with vav (ו) consecutive carry an imperatival nuance. For a discussion of the Hebrew construction here and the difficulty of translating it into English, see S. R. Driver, A Treatise on the Use of the Tenses in Hebrew, 124–25.


Heb "and let them swarm in the earth and be fruitful and multiply on the earth."


Notes for Gen 8:20LEB

Offered burnt offerings on the altar. F. D. Maurice includes a chapter on the sacrifice of Noah in The Doctrine of Sacrifice. The whole burnt offering, according to Leviticus 1, represented the worshiper’s complete surrender and dedication to the Yahweh. After the flood Noah could see that Elohim was not only a Elohim of wrath, but a Elohim of redemption and restoration. The one who escaped the catastrophe could best express his gratitude and submission through sacrificial worship, acknowledging Elohim as the sovereign of the universe.


Notes for Gen 8:21LEB

The Yahweh "smelled" (וַיָּרַח, vayyarakh) a "soothing smell" (רֵיחַ הַנִּיהֹחַ, reakh hannihoakh). The object forms a cognate accusative with the verb. The language is anthropomorphic. The offering had a sweet aroma that pleased or soothed. The expression in Lev 1 signifies that Elohim accepts the offering with pleasure, and in accepting the offering he accepts the worshiper.


Heb "and the Yahweh said."


Heb "in his heart."


Here the Hebrew word translated "curse" is קָלָל (qalal), used in the Piel verbal stem.


The Hebrew particle כִּי (ki) can be used in a concessive sense (see BDB 473 s.v. כִּי), which makes good sense in this context. Its normal causal sense ("for") does not fit the context here very well.


Heb "the inclination of the heart of humankind."


Heb "from his youth."


Notes for Gen 8:22LEB

Heb "yet all the days of the earth." The idea is "[while there are] yet all the days of the earth," meaning, "as long as the earth exists."


Heb "seed," which stands here by metonymy for the time when seed is planted.