Notes for Isa 64:1LEB

In BHS the chapter division occurs in a different place from the English Bible: Isa 64:1LEB ET (Isa 63:19LEBb HT) and Isa 64:2–12LEB (Isa 64:1–11LEB HT). Beginning with Isa 65:1LEB the verse numbers in the English Bible and the Hebrew Bible are again the same.


Or "the heavens." The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated "heavens" or "sky" depending on the context.


Or "quake." נָזֹלּוּ (nazollu) is from the verbal root זָלַל (zalal, "quake"; see HALOT 272 s.v. II זלל). Perhaps there is a verbal allusion to Judg 5:5LEB, the only other passage where this verb occurs. In that passage the poet tells how the Yahweh’s appearance to do battle caused the mountains to shake.


Notes for Isa 64:2LEB

"to make known your name to your adversaries." Perhaps the infinitive construct with preposition - לְ (lamed) should be construed with "come down" in v. 1a, or subordinated to the following line: "To make known your name to your adversaries, let the nations shake from before you."


Notes for Isa 64:3LEB

"[for which] we were not waiting."


See the note at v. 1.


Notes for Isa 64:4LEB

"from ancient times they have not heard, they have not listened."


Notes for Isa 64:5LEB

"meet [with kindness]."


"the one who rejoices and does righteousness."


"in your ways they remember you."


The Hebrew text reads literally, "look, you were angry and we sinned against them continually [or perhaps, "in ancient times"] and we were delivered." The statement makes little sense as it stands. The first vav [ו] consecutive ("and we sinned") must introduce an explanatory clause here (see Num 1:48LEB and Isa 39:1LEB for other examples of this relatively rare use of the vav [ו] consecutive). The final verb (if rendered positively) makes no sense in this context – Yahweh’s anger at their sin resulted in judgment, not deliverance. One of the alternatives involves an emendation to וַנִּרְשָׁע (vannirsha’, "and we were evil"; LXX, NRSV, TEV). The Vulgate and the Qumran scroll 1QIsa support the MT reading. One can either accept an emendation or cast the statement as a question (as above).


Notes for Isa 64:6LEB

"and like a garment of menstruation [are] all our righteous acts"; KJV, NIV "filthy rags"; ASV "a polluted garment."


Notes for Isa 64:7LEB

Or "calls out in"; NASB, NIV, NRSV "calls on."


Or "rouses himself"; NASB "arouses himself."


"for you have hidden your face from us."


The Hebrew text reads literally, "and you caused us to melt in the hand of our sin." The verb וַתְּמוּגֵנוּ (vattémugenu) is a Qal preterite 2nd person masculine singular with a 1st person common plural suffix from the root מוּג (mug, "melt"). However, elsewhere the Qal of this verb is intransitive. If the verbal root מוּג (mug) is retained here, the form should be emended to a Polel pattern (וַתְּמֹגְגֵנוּ, vattémogégenu). The translation assumes an emendation to וַתְּמַגְּנֵנוּ (vattémaggénenu, "and you handed us over"). This form is a Piel preterite 2nd person masculine singular with a 1st person common plural suffix from the verbal root מִגֵּן (miggen, "hand over, surrender"; see HALOT 545 s.v. מגן and BDB 171 s.v. מָגָן). The point is that Yahweh has abandoned them to their sinful ways and no longer seeks reconciliation.


Notes for Isa 64:8LEB

On the force of וְעַתָּה (attah) here, see HALOT 902 s.v. עַתָּה.


"the work of your hand."


Notes for Isa 64:9LEB

"do not remember sin continually."


"Look, gaze at your people, all of us." Another option is to translate, "Take a good look! We are all your people."


Notes for Isa 64:10LEB

"holy" (so KJV, NASB, NRSV, NLT); NIV "sacred." [Set-Apart].


Notes for Isa 64:11LEB

"our source of pride."


Or "all that we valued has become a ruin."


Notes for Isa 64:12LEB

"because of these"; KJV, ASV "for these things."