Notes for Isa 65:1LEB

"I allowed myself to be sought by those who did not ask."


"I allowed myself to be found by those who did not seek."


"call out in"; NASB, NIV, NRSV "call on."


Notes for Isa 65:2LEB

"who walked [in] the way that is not good, after their thoughts."


Notes for Isa 65:3LEB

"the people who provoke me to anger to my face continually."


Or "gardens" (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).


Or perhaps, "on tiles."


Notes for Isa 65:4LEB

Perhaps the worship of underworld deities or dead spirits is in view.


The Hebrew text reads literally, "and in the watches they spend the night." Some understand נְּצוּרִים (nétsurim) as referring to "secret places" or "caves," while others emend the text to וּבֵין צוּרִים (uven tsurim, "between the rocky cliffs").


"the flesh of the pig"; KJV, NAB, NASB "swine’s flesh."


The marginal reading (Qere), supported by the Qumran scroll 1QIsa, reads מְרַק (méraq, "broth"), while the consonantal text (Kethib) has פְרַק (feraq, "fragment").


Notes for Isa 65:6LEB

"Look, it is written before me."


"I will pay back into their lap."


Notes for Isa 65:7LEB

"the iniquities of your fathers."


Or perhaps, "taunted"; KJV "blasphemed"; NAB "disgraced"; NASB "scorned"; NIV "defied"; NRSV "reviled."


"I will measure out their pay [from the] beginning into their lap," i.e., he will give them everything they have earned.


Notes for Isa 65:8LEB

"just as." In the Hebrew text the statement is one long sentence, "Just as…, so I will do…."


"for a blessing is in it."


"by not destroying everyone."


Notes for Isa 65:9LEB

"it." The third feminine singular pronominal suffix probably refers to the land which contains the aforementioned mountains.


Notes for Isa 65:10LEB

Sharon was a plain located to the west, along the Mediterranean coast north of Joppa and south of Carmel.


The Valley of Achor ("Achor" means "trouble" in Hebrew) was the site of Achan’s execution. It was located to the east, near Jericho.


"a resting place for cattle"; NASB, NIV "for herds."


"for my people who seek me."


Notes for Isa 65:11LEB

The Hebrew text has simply, "forget." The words "about worshiping at" are supplied in the translation for clarification.


The Hebrew has לַגַּד (laggad, "for Gad"), the name of a pagan deity. See HALOT 176 s.v. II גַּד 2.


The Hebrew has לַמְנִי (lamni, "for Meni"), the name of a pagan deity. See HALOT 602 s.v. מְגִי.


Notes for Isa 65:12LEB

"I assign you to the sword." Some emend the Qal verb form מָנִיתִי (maniti, "I assign") to the Piel מִנִּיתִי (minniti, " I ordain"). The verb sounds like the name of the god Meni (מְנִי, méni, "Destiny, Fate"). The sound play draws attention to the irony of the statement. The sinners among Yahweh’s people worship the god Meni, apparently in an effort to ensure a bright destiny for themselves. But the Yahweh is the one who really determines their destiny and he has decreed their demise.


Or "at the slaughter"; NIV "for the slaughter"; NLT "before the executioner."


"that which is evil in my eyes."


Notes for Isa 65:14LEB

"from the good of the heart."


"from the pain of the heart."


"from the breaking of the spirit."


Notes for Isa 65:15LEB

"you will leave your name for an oath to my chosen ones."


For an example of such a curse formula see Jer 29:22LEB.


Notes for Isa 65:16LEB

Or "in the land" (NIV, NCV, NRSV). The same phrase occurs again later in this verse, with the same options.


"will pronounce a blessing by the Yahweh of truth."


"will take an oath by the Yahweh of truth."


"for the former distresses will be forgotten, and they will be hidden from my eyes."


Notes for Isa 65:17LEB

This hyperbolic statement likens the coming transformation of Jerusalem (see vv. 18–19) to a new creation of the cosmos.


Or perhaps, "the former things" (so ASV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); TEV "The events of the past."


"and they will not come up on the mind."


Notes for Isa 65:18LEB

"Jerusalem, joy." The next verse suggests the meaning: The Yahweh will create Jerusalem to be a source of joy to himself.


"her people, happiness." See the preceding note.


Notes for Isa 65:19LEB

"and I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and be happy in my people."


Notes for Isa 65:20LEB

"and there will not be from there again a nursing infant of days," i.e., one that lives just a few days.


"or an old [man] who does not fill out his days."


"for the child as a son of one hundred years will die." The point seems to be that those who die at the age of a hundred will be considered children, for the average life span will be much longer than that. The category "child" will be redefined in light of the expanded life spans that will characterize this new era.


"the one who misses." חָטָא (khata’) is used here in its basic sense of "miss the mark." See HALOT 305 s.v. חטא. Another option is to translate, "and the sinner who reaches the age of a hundred will be cursed."


Notes for Isa 65:22LEB

"they will not build, and another live [in it]."


"they will not plant, and another eat."


"for like the days of the tree [will be] the days of my people."


"the work of their hands" (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT "their hard-won gains."


Notes for Isa 65:23LEB

"and they will not give birth to horror."


"for offspring blessed by the Yahweh they [will be], and their descendants along with them."


Notes for Isa 65:24LEB

The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on "in the future" in Isa 2:2LEB.


Notes for Isa 65:25LEB

A similar statement appears in Isa 11:6LEB.


These words also appear in Isa11:7LEB.


Some see an allusion to Gen 3:14LEB (note "you will eat dirt"). The point would be that even in this new era the snake (often taken as a symbol of Satan) remains under Yahweh’s curse. However, it is unlikely that such an allusion exists. Even if there is an echo of Gen 3:14LEB, the primary allusion is to Isa 11:8LEB, where snakes are pictured as no longer dangerous. They will no longer attack other living creatures, but will be content to crawl along the ground. (The statement "you will eat dirt" in Gen 3:14LEB means "you will crawl on the ground." In the same way the statement "dirt will be its food" in Isa 65:25LEB means "it will crawl on the ground.")


"in all my holy mountain." These same words appear in Isa 11:9LEB. See the note there.


As in Isa 11:1–9LEB the prophet anticipates a time when the categories predator-prey no longer exist. See the note at the end of Isa 11:8LEB.